Constraints Led Coaching

Constraints Led Coaching is a style of coaching where the coach takes a particular technique, skill or tactic from a whole game. the coach can isolate it into a small sided game and lets the players find answers to solve the problem. Damian Farrow says about the Constraints Led Coaching “It’s the design of games using different scoring systems that require the players to use particular techniques or strategies to win the game. simply tell the players the scoring system and then just let them play. Allow them time to determine the most appropriate strategy and response rather than explicitly telling them the solution”.


This diagram shows the constraints for the training session. For individual will be their Physical, Mental and Personality. The environmental is their Physical by the weather type and size of surfaces and also the Cultural of the difference of Kenyan runners and Indian spin bowlers. For the task can be the rules, using different equipment, using different player numbers and time.

The environmental constraints include parks, backyards, empty spaces and alleyways that provide the backdrop for early sport experiences of many active children. These environmental constraints should not be under-estimated in the development of expertise in sport as they provide a non-threatening environment where children can learn to play sports without the pressure of adult interference. It has become apparent in the dynamic interactive settings of physical education that movement skill acquisition occurs as a consequence of the interplay of numerous interacting constraints, which need to be considered in pedagogical practice (Davids, Chow, & Shuttleworth, 2005). Mind, body and the environment are continuously influencing each other to shape behavior. Motor learning is a process of acquiring movement patterns which satisfy the key constraints on each individual (Davids, Button, & Bennett, 2008). This can help the outdoor leaders design a learning experiences that recognize the constant and reciprocal nature of learner and environment, the union between perception and action. The learner is placed at the centre of the process and makes movements and decisions derived from unique interacting individual, task and environmental constraints. Small changes to individual structural and task rules or equipment. Environmental constraints in learning contexts can cause dramatic changes in movement patterns.


Reference List

Davids, K., Chow, J-Y., & Shuttleworth, R. (2005). A constraints-led framework for non-linear pedagogy in physical education. Journal of Physical Education, New Zealand, 38, 17-29.

Davids, K., Button, C., & Bennett, S. J. (2008). Dynamics of skill acquisition: A constraints-led approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.



Teaching games for understanding (TGfU)

What is TGfU? Teaching Games for Understanding approach has caused considerable debate in game teaching for the last two decades The TGfU focuses upon teaching students tactical understanding before dealing with the performance of skills, as such the TGfU offers a tactical approach to games teaching emphasizing game performance before skill performance (Griffin, Mitchell, & Oslin, 1997). which allows the game performance to understand the tactical awareness, which leads to effective skill selection and skill execution.

The background to the TGfU approach is that it first started in the United Kingdom in the early 1980s. The ideas were spawned by Thorpe, Bunker, & Almond (1986) and drew on the earlier work of Mauldon & Redfern (1981). The reason why TGfU approach was proposed as an alternative to the technique approach because it was noted that techniques practiced in isolation did not transfer to the game. In addition Bunker & Thorpe (1986a) observed, and we believe this is still the same today, that the “games teaching shows at best, a series of highly structured lessons leaning heavily on the teaching of techniques, or at worst lessons which rely on the children themselves to sustain interest in the game.” The Teaching Games of understand approach was the best way to put the Why of a game before the How.

Skill acquisition and game play:  

In tennis, becoming skilled is a gradual process that involves learning to implement the most appropriate movement pattern for situations that arise in game play. The problem that novice tennis players face is multifaceted; they need to learn which environmental cues are important and which are redundant in order to selectively attend to only the most essential information (Abernethy, 1987). Based on this information, the players need to select tactics during the game that will allow them the best opportunity to score a point, they also need to the coordinate patterns of movement that will have a effectively advantage over their opponent. specially tennis is a high moving sport which the players need to have a lot of tactics to beat their opponent.

Reference list

Griffin, L. L., Mitchell, S. A., & Oslin, J. L. (1997). Teaching sport concepts and skills:A tactical games approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Abernethy, B. (1987). Anticipation in sport: A review. Physical Education Review, 10(1),

Bunker, D., & Thorpe, R. (1986a). Is there a need to reflect? In R. Thorpe, D. Bunker, & L. Almond (Eds.), Rethinking games teaching (pp. 25-34). Loughborough


Game based approaches to coaching is very important for coach, the reason why it is important is that some participants just want to play games and not listen to the coaching techniques. when a coach is talking to their participants but they might think they are listening to them by giving them the instructions on the training season but what they hearing is Blah Blah Blah, when they hear the word ‘game’ they soon listen and ask who’s the captain and how long is the game going to last.

The coach can do a Game based approach by using the game to see the benefits of the participants and ask questions about what happened in the game and the challengers during the game. For example

  • Warm up
  • game
  • questions and challenges
  • back to game
  • more question and challenges
  • progress the game
  • cool down

The benefit using the Game Based Approach can be that the participants are enjoying the session because its a game and also the coach can see the strengths and weaknesses of their participants and they can help them to progress in the game. the game based approach will be better then the traditional coaching session because it only has the warm up, technique drills, game and cool down, the participants will get bored and won’t listen to them.

The FA future game vision for the players what to produce technically excellent and innovative players, with exceptional decision making skills. The FA Future Games says “A young player who is made to feel confident, capable and trusted to be creative will have a greater chance of fulfilling their potential than one who feels afraid to fully express themselves.” and “It is crucial that young players experience the dynamic nature of the game of football, where they are challenged to make appropriate decisions and movements in the context of the game”. here a image from the FA Tesco Skills of some drills for the counter attacking in A Game Based Approach.



The FA Tesco Skills. (2015). A Games Based Approach to Coaching Bringing The FA Future Game to Life. Counter Attacking: Retrieved from:—a-games-based-approach-to-coaching.ashx

Invasion game

In one of my practical we had to come up with idea of an invasion game, there many sports you can choose from (football, netball, rugby, hockey and basketball). The invasion games is an attacking activity for a coach to use in their training session. Get Active sports say about Invasion game is “the term used for any game where the aim is to attack an opponent’s territory and score a goal or point. Usually consisting of teams of equal players these fast paced games focus on teamwork, keeping possession, scoring and defending.” Invasion games are trying to help to improve player’s tactical awareness to score or stop the opposite team from scoring and keeping the possession. The physical Education and Intramural have come up with an Invasion game: Tail chase, the objected is to get your opponent’s tail without losing your own. How to play the game “Players begin by stuffing a small part of their “tail” (cloth or rope) in the back of their shorts. At the teacher’s signal, each player tries to grab their partner’s tail without losing his/her own. When the tail is removed, the player puts it back and tries again. Count how many times a tail can be removed in a set time. No body contact is allowed.” This will make the players think about using their body to shield the tail, keeping head up to watch opponent and also find open spaces.

In practical I used football to come up with a game for the invasion games. I decided on using a 3v3 game which involved three players on each team and one net on opposite sides. This will be working on their teamwork, keeping possession, score and defending.


The Physical Education and Intramural. (2015) Teaching Games for Understanding. Quality Daily Physical Education: VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1. Retrieved from:

Creativity in sport

creativity is having the ability to transcend traditional ideas and to create brand new ideas. when we consider a creative footballer it is these ideas which come to mind by them having the ability to beat players with great skills in a 1v1 situations, the vision of a pass which “no-one could see”, the scoring of a goal which seemed ‘impossible’ or even just a subtle flick or touch which shows awareness, vision and confidence. All these examples highlight what we regard as a creative player.

These are type of players we called genius and in modern time footballers today market are worth millions. He is a player which can win games, create goals and help a team succeed. according to the whitehouse address have some examples of genius footballers “Across the history of the game football has seen many genius’; Maradona, Cruyff, Best, Matthews, Zidane, Riquelme, Hagi, Pirlo, Laudrup, Iniesta, Ronaldinho and Messi.”

“Creativity entails varying, rare and flexible decision making in complex game situations.”  (Memmert & Roth 2007)

It’s not just footballers have creativity, there are many sports have creativity in them for example, Lewis Hamilton is a Formula 1 driver, his creativity is to have a good decision making to be able to overtake his opponents and not letting his tyres lose drip on the race surface and the main one to win the race.


Volunteering at West View Leisure Centre!

I have been volunteering at West View Leisure centre for a streetwise sports club and I have been doing it for a year. The streetwise sports club consist of sports like Football, Climbing, Swimming and many more. I do my volunteering every Thursday night 4pm to 6pm, my roles and responsibilities in my volunteer role is to assist and support the coach who is on duty during the session. Depending on my qualifications and ability I be able to lead and deliver a session gaining valuable experience along the way by dealing with children age 8 – 14 years old, by me having a level 1 in football and level 2 in dodgeball I have the chance to lead sessions every Thursday.

What is reflection coaching?

Reflection coaching in my view is the past experiences and analysis them for example a coach analysis a training session would look at how it went and look at the strengths and weaknesses of the session. Hatton & Smith (1995) says “it is a form of problem solving that is used to resolve coaching issues and involves the careful consideration of coaches practice, based on their knowledge and practice.

Gilbert and Trudel (2001) consider reflection to utilise “a conceptual framework to understand how coaches draw on experience when learning to coach”. They also believed that a different type of reflection which they called “retrospective reflection on action” their belief is that coaches reflect on concerns in between practice sessions and that reflection, still occurs within the action present but not in the midst of activity. So they created a model of reflection which will help other coaches and including me to develop as a coach.


By looking at this model has helped me to start a new way of reflecting on my training session by trying to finding the positives and negatives in the session and being able to identify it and be able to change it for the other sessions. This model has made me a better coach.